重读写作圣经 重读写作圣经 - The Elements of Style

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2017-08-08 | 阅读:手机版

   
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The Elements of Style,中文译名是《风格的要素》,由康奈尔大学教授威廉·斯特伦克所著。这本薄薄的书被奉为写作圣经,据说对提高美国中学生的写作水平贡献了很大的力量。虽然有些古旧(写在1918年),但仍被很多我认识的大手们推荐过,对遣词造句的规范和构建文章要点的讲解简明扼要,比一些流行快餐考试辅导写作书好太多太多。

 

近来拿起这本书重读了一番,仍然受益良多,故推荐给大家。这本书主要内容包含两个部分:句法基本规则和构建文章的基本规则。英语基础相对好些的同学可以读原版。以下是书中第17页的一个节选以及我个人的翻译,内容是构建段落的规则、范例和评论。算是给大家做一个预览,水平所限如有翻译错误还恳请指出。




Part One 构建段落规则

(a) the topic sentence comes at or near the beginning; 

(b) the succeeding sentences explain or establish or develop the statement made in the topic sentence; and

(c) the final sentence either emphasizes the thought of the topic sentence or states some important consequence. Ending with adigression, or with an unimportant detail, is particularly to be avoided.


(a)  中心句在段落开头或者接近开头;

(b)  随后的句子解释或者证实或者发展中心句所作出的陈述;并且

(c)  末句或者强调中心句的思想,或者陈述重要的后果。尤其要避免段尾离题或者段尾描述不重要的细节。

 

Part Two 段落写作范例

1. Now, to be properly enjoyed, a walking tour should be gone upon alone. 

2. If you go in accompany, or even in pairs, it is no longer a walking tour in anything but name; it is something else and more in the nature of a picnic. 

3. A walking tour should be gone upon alone, because freedom is of the essence; because you should beable to stop and go on, and follow this way or that, as the freak takes you; and because you must have your own pace, and neither trot alongside a champion walker, nor mince in time with a girl. 

4. And you must be open to all impressions and let your thoughts take colour from what you see. 

5. You should be as a pipe for any wind to play upon. 

6. " I cannot see the wit," says Hazlitt," of walking and talking at the same time." 

7. " When I am in the country, I wish to vegetate like the country, " which is the gist of all that can besaid upon the matter. 

8. There should be no cackle of voices at your elbow, tojar on the meditative silence of the morning. 

9. And so long as a man is reasoning he cannot surrender himself to that fine intoxication that comes ofmuch motion in the open air, that begins in a sort of dazzle and sluggishness of the brain, and ends in a peace that passes comprehension. - Stevenson, WalkingTours.

 

1. 既然要尽兴,徒步旅行就应该独自一人进行。

2. 如果你搭伴前行,哪怕两人一路,徒步旅行就变得徒有其名索然无味,变得更具有野餐的性质。

3. 徒步旅行应该独自进行,因为自由是绝不可少的;因为你应该能够跟随自己的念头停停走走,走这条路或那条;因为你必须有自己的速度,既不跟着竞走冠军疾走,也不和姑娘一起碎步。

4. 并且你必须向所有的景象敞开自我,让你的思想从你的所见中汲取颜色。

5. 你应该做一个管乐器任凭风来演奏。

6. “ 我看不出来这有什么有趣的,” 哈兹里特说,“ 一边走步一边说话 "。

7. " 当我在乡村的时候,我希望过乡村单调无聊的生活。” 这就是徒步旅行这件事上一切的要领。

8. 在你身边不应该有谈笑声,来干扰清晨冥想的宁静。

9. 只要一个人还在理智行事,他就不能真正的沉醉在大自然的变化中,这种沉醉始于大脑的迷乱和慵懒,并且以一种难以理解的祥和结束。- 史蒂芬森,《徒步旅行》

 

Part Three 逐句功能分析

1. Topic sentence. 

2. The meaning made clearer by denial of the contrary. 

3. The topicsentence repeated, in abridged form, and supported by three reasons; themeaning of the third ("you must have your own pace") made clearer bydenying the contrary. 

4. A fourth reason, stated in two forms. 

5. The same reason,stated in still another form. 

6-7. The same reason as stated by Hazlitt. 

8. Finalstatement of the fourth reason, in language amplified and heightened to form astrong conclusion.

 

1. 中心句。

2. 通过否定反面来使意思更清晰。

3. 简单重述中心句,并用了三个理由支持;第三个理由通过否定反面来使意思更清晰。

4. 第四个理由,用两种形式陈述。

5. 同样的理由,用另一种形式陈述。

6-7. 引用哈兹里特的话陈述同样的理由。

8. 重复解释哈兹里特的引言。

9. 第四个理由的最后陈述,以放大和加强的语言来形成有力的结论。


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